Eat Happy!

Eat Happy!


**The information provided in this BLOG is in no way intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. This information should never replace the advice of a doctor. Please use this information as you see fit. This information will pertain differently to each child, each adult, and each family.**

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Glossary of Terms

ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test: measures how well the adrenal glands respond to the hormone ACTH. ACTH is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol.

Adenoid: also known as a pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is a mass of lymphatic tissue situated posterior to the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat. Normally, in children, it forms a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.

AMT Feeding Products, tubing: long tubing that attaches to a feeding tube extension, allowing the transport of whatever fluid is traveling through the button or tube and into the stomach.

Ammonia: byproduct formed by the breakdown of proteins in the body

Arnold- Chiari Malformation: Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance. When the indented bony space at the lower rear of the skull is smaller than normal, the cerebellum and brainstem can be pushed downward. The resulting pressure on the cerebellum can block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (the liquid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord) and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, headache, and problems with balance and coordination. There are three primary types of CM. The most common is Type I, which may not cause symptoms and is often found by accident during an examination for another condition. Type II (also called Arnold-Chiari malformation) is usually accompanied by a myelomeningocele-a form of spina bifida that occurs when the spinal canal and backbone do not close before birth, causing the spinal cord to protrude through an opening in the back. This can cause partial or complete paralysis below the spinal opening. Type III is the most serious form of CM, and causes severe neurological defects. Other conditions sometimes associated with CM include hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, and spinal curvature.

Asthma: disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing; caused by inflammation in the airways. When an asthma attack occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways become tight and the lining of the air passages swells. This reduces the amount of air that can pass by.

Audiologist: diagnose and treat a patient’s hearing and balance problems using advanced technology and procedures

Biofilms: a group of microorganisms in which cells adhere to each other on a surface, creating a slime layer.

Blenderized Diet: regular food blended to a consistency that can be easily passed through a feeding tube

Bolus: a dose of medication of food delivered over a short period of time through a feeding tube, IV, or injection

Bronchodilators: a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs

Calmoseptine: protects skin and helps heal irritations caused by incontinence, feeding tube leakage, burns, scrapes, fistulas, drainage, and diaper rash

Carnitine: a substance that helps the body turn fat into energy. Your body makes it in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm.

Clostridium Difficle: a bacteria that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon

Colitis: swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon)

Colonoscopy: an internal examination of the colon (large intestine) and rectum, using an instrument called a colonoscope, which has a small camera attached to a flexible tube that can reach and examine the entire length of the colon

Continuous Feeding: fluid or food delivered over a long period of time either by feeding tube and pump or IV

Cortisol: formally known as hydrocortisone, it is a steroid hormone, produced by the adrenal gland and is released in response to stress and a low level of blood steroids. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar; suppress the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism.[2] It also decreases bone formation.

DNA Microarray: a test to measure the expression of large numbers of genes

Dextrose: a simple sugar used as a primary source of energy for cells (also known as glucose)

ENT doctor: diagnose and manage diseases of the ears, nose, sinuses, larynx (voice box), mouth, and throat, as well as structures of the neck and face (also known as Otolaryngologist)

Ear Tubes: plastic and shaped like a hollow spool, suggested for children who have repeat ear infections or when fluid stays behind the eardrum, which are placed by a specialist (otolaryngologist) through a small surgical opening made in the eardrum called a myringotomy or tympanostomy

Eczema: a long-term (chronic) skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes (also known as atopic dermatitis)

Effusion in the Ear: a collection of fluid that occurs within the middle ear space as a result of the negative pressure produced by altered Eustachian tube function

Electrogastrography: a technique for recording stomach muscle activity using electrodes place on the outside of the front wall of the stomach

Emetic Reflex: a defense reaction used to expel undesired substances from the stomach (also known as vomiting)

Endocrinologist: a doctor who specializes in treating disorders of the endocrine system, such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and many others

Endoscopy: a procedure that lets your doctor look inside your upper digestive system. It uses an instrument called an endoscope, or scope. Scopes have a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube. The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside an organ

Enteral: a term used to describe routes of drug administration that involve absorption of the drug through the gastrointestinal tract

Extension: (AKA feeding tube extension) any tubing which attaches to the button or feeding tube via a small notch-like clasp at one end and into tubing from a feeding tube bag at the other end.  The attachment piece for the feeding tube bag tubing is called a barb.  Extensions can be either bolus (larger and wider), straight angle (typically used in bolus extensions and are inserted into the button or feeding tube via a perpendicular motion), or right-angle (similar in description as straight angle only the insertion is parallel to the button or feeding tube through a small notch-like clasp).

Farrell Bag: (AKA Farrell Valve) is a closed reservoir overflow system which is designed to help patients who suffer from poor gastric motility, pain and bloating, and maximizes enteral feeding by providing a channel to constantly decompress the stomach, allowing the stomach to fill at its own pace

Fasting Blood Glucose: measures blood glucose after you have not eaten for at least 8 hours

Fasting Test: a test depriving the body of glucose (sugar), the body’s main source of energy.  Blood glucose is checked at regular intervals to evaluate how the body responds to deprivation, along with observing the body’s ability to break down glycogen and fat to be used as energy.

Fatty Acid: produced when fats are broken down and are considered “good fats” which are not highly soluble in water, and can be used for energy by most types of cells. They may be monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, or saturated.

Feeding Aversion: reluctance or refusal to feed or eat

Feeding Pump: a machine that uses feeding tubes to deliver nutrition to patients who cannot obtain such by swallowing

Feeding Therapist: the process of teaching the concepts of the oral-swallowing mechanism and experience in how these structures and function relate to feeding and swallowing.   Therapy assesses and treats the child's oral motor skills; mealtime behaviors; reaction to food type and textures; self-feeding skills, and positioning.

FlexSig Test: a procedure used to observe the inside of the first third of the colon and the rectum

Fundoplication: the upper curve of the stomach (the fundus) is wrapped around the esophagus and sewn into place so that the lower portion of the esophagus passes through a small tunnel of stomach muscle, which strengthens the valve between the esophagus and stomach (lower esophageal sphincter) and stops acid from backing up into the esophagus as easily

Fundus of the Stomach: the rounded part of the upper stomach, it allows for an accumulation of stomach gases produced by chemical digestion.  It will also store undigested food for up to one hour.

GERD: (AKA Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) a condition in which the stomach contents (food or liquid) leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach) which can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.

GLP-1: an intestinally derived hormone gene protein, which broken down, has potent effects on glucose-mediated insulin secretion, insulin gene expression, and beta-cell growth and differentiation

G Tube- Gastrostomy Tube: a medical tube used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot obtain nutrition by swallowing

Gastric Button: a medical surface level device used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot obtain nutrition by swallowing

Gastric Decompression: the process of relieving pressure from the stomach

Gastroenteritis: a condition that causes irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines (the gastrointestinal tract). This infection may be caused by bacteria or parasites in spoiled food or unclean water, or certain foods may irritate your stomach and cause gastroenteritis, such as lactose.

Gastroenterologist: an internal medicine physician that specializes in the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Gastroparesis: a condition that reduces the ability of the stomach to empty its contents when there is no blockage (obstruction)

Geneticist: a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms

Glucagon: a hormone produced in the pancreas used to raise very low blood sugar and in diagnostic testing of the stomach and other digestive organs

Glucometer: a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood

Glucose: a simple sugar used as a primary source of energy for cells (also known as dextrose)

Glucose Tolerance Test: (OGTT: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) after fasting for at least 8 hours, one drinks a liquid containing a certain amount of glucose. Blood is drawn before testing, and again every 30 to 60 minutes after drinking

Glycogen: a multibranched long carbohydrate molecule (polysaccaride) that serves as a form of energy storage in all animals.  In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage

Glycogen Storage Disease: an inherited metabolic disorder where the body lacks the enzyme responsible for making or breaking down glycogen in the body

Growth Hormone: a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals; used as a prescription drug in medicine to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency

HELLP Syndrome: (acronym for: Hemolysis: destruction of red blood cells, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets) an obstetric complication that is frequently misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Many investigators consider the syndrome to be a variant of preeclampsia, but it may be a separate entity. The cause of HELLP syndrome remains unclear. Early diagnosis is critical because the morbidity and mortality rates associated with the syndrome have been reported to be as high as 25 percent.

Hiatal Hernia: a condition in which part of the stomach sticks upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm

Hyperinsulinism: a condition that causes individuals to have abnormally high levels of insulin, which is a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels. People with this condition have frequent episodes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)

Hypoallergenic Formula: formula that has been proven to cause fewer allergies in babies than standard formulas.  Hypoallergenic formulas have proteins that have been "hydrolyzed" or "predigested," broken down into tinier proteins that are less likely to cause allergic reactions and are more easily digested.

Hypopnea: a decrease in airflow during breathing

Hypotonia: a state of low muscle tone[1] (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect motor nerve control by the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing hypotonia, even in early infancy, is usually relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the underlying cause can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's development and later life depend primarily on the severity of the muscle weakness and the nature of the cause. Some disorders have a specific treatment but the principal treatment for most hypotonia of idiopathic or neurologic cause is physical therapy and/or occupational therapy for remediation.

Insulin: a hormone, produced by the pancreas, which is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen inside these tissues.

Insulinoma: a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin

Intestinal Villi: tiny, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall, increasing the internal surface area of the intestinal walls to allow for increased intestinal wall area that is available for absorption of nutrients

Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR): describes the small infant who had poor fetal length growth for various reasons, demonstrated while in-utero by ultrasonography.

IV Therapy: the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein

Ketone: three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver. Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third is a waste product excreted from the body. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting.

Ketotic Hypoglycemia: a rare but serious form of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that occurs in young children after a period of fasting, such as due to illness.  The body doesn't have enough stored carbohydrates to correct the low blood sugar because its stores are easily depleted. As a result, the body converts fats into usable carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis) to meet energy needs. A byproduct of this process is ketones. When ketones build up in the blood, they can lead to serious problems, such as coma

Lactic Acidosis: a physiological condition characterized by low pH in body tissues and blood (acidosis) accompanied by the buildup of lactate

Lactose: a disaccharide (combination of two simple sugars) that is found most notably in milk and is formed from simple sugars galactose and glucose

Laparoscopy: an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform surgery

Long-Chain Fatty Acid: fatty acids with tails longer than 12 carbons

Long Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency- LCHAD: a rare condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting)

Medicaid: the United States health program for certain people and families with low incomes and/or disabilities

Micro Preemie: It appears as though 2 definition are acceptable in the medical field for this term: 1) Born before 26 weeks completed gestation or weighing less than 800 grams.  2) Born before 29 weeks completed gestation or weighing less than 3 lbs

Mitochondria: a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most cells; sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of energy.  In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.

Mitochondrial Disease: a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell; often caused by the mitochondrial DNA that affect mitochondria function

MRI: (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body

Mupirocin: (Bactroban) an antibiotic, is used to treat skin infections caused by bacteria

Myringotomy: the surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane, as for the removal of fluid or the drainage of pus

Nebulizer: A drug delivery system for producing a fine spray of liquid, for inhaling a medicinal drug.

Neonatologist: a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units

NG- Nasal Gastric Tube: a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach for the delivery of nutrients

NICU: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Nissen Fundoplication: a surgical procedure to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatus hernia. In GERD it is usually performed when medical therapy has failed.  The Nissen fundoplication is total (360°), but partial fundoplications known as Belsey fundoplication (270° anterior transthoracic), Dor fundoplication (anterior 180-200°) or Toupet fundoplication (posterior 270°) are also alternative procedures with somewhat different indications

Norovirus: a highly contagious bacterial infection that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting and are a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in closed and crowded environments, such as hospitals, nursing homes and cruise ships

Nuk Brush: used for oral massage, oral stimulation and exploration, it stimulates lateral molar ridges, reduces oral hypersensitivity.  The nubby surface can hold tastes of liquid, purees or crumbs while it is used with supervision as a "spoon" for initial feedings.

Nystatin: used to treat fungal infections of the skin, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract

Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a condition in which the flow of air pauses or decreases during breathing while you are asleep because the airway has become narrowed, blocked, or floppy

Occult Blood: blood that is not visibly apparent

Occupational Therapist: help people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations). Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate fully in school and social situations, helping people recovering from injury to regain skills, and providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes.

Ophthamologist: an eye medical doctor who is specialized in eye and vision care and are trained to provide the full spectrum of eye care, from prescribing glasses and contact lenses to complex and delicate eye surgery

Orthosis; an orthopedic appliance or apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve function of movable parts of the body

Oral Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing

Orthodontic Dental Work: the first specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both

Osmolarity: the measure of particles, defined as the number of “osmoles (Osm) of solute” per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm/L... in other words, the richness or density of foods or liquids

Otits Media: inflammation of the middle ear, or a middle ear infection

Otolaryngologist: diagnose and manage diseases of the ears, nose, sinuses, larynx (voice box), mouth, and throat, as well as structures of the neck and face (also known as ENT)

Peptamen Jr.: Nutritionally complete tube feeding or oral supplement

Peristalsis: a series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract

Polysomnography: a sleep study; monitors you as you sleep, or try to sleep

Preemie: babies who are born before 37 weeks gestation

Pro-Shield: cream which provides a moisture barrier that protects from irritation due to fecal and urinary incontinence and G tube leakage

Probiotic: live microorganisms that are thought to be beneficial to the host organism

Prokinetic: a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm. They are used to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, bloating, constipation, heart burn, nausea, and vomiting. They are used to treat a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis, acid reflux disease, gastroparesis, and functional dyspepsia.

Pulmonologist: a medical specialist dealing with disease involving the respiratory tract

Pylorus: the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestines)

Pyloroplasty: a surgical cut and re-suturing procedure to relax and widen the opening in the lower part of the stomach (pylorus) so that the stomach contents can empty into the small intestine (duodenum)

Racemic: a mixture that has equal, mirror-imaged amounts of left- and right-handed molecules 

Racemic Epi: a synthetic form of adrenaline that is primarily used to help severe asthmatics during exacerbations of respiratory distress.  The mixture is a sympathomimetic bronchodilator that is delivered by aerosol.

Radiograph: An image produced on a radiosensitive surface, such as a photographic film, by radiation other than visible light, especially by x-rays passed through an object or by photographing a fluoroscopic image

Reactive Hypoglycemia/ Late Dumping Syndrome/ Post-Prandial Hypoglycemia/ 
Alimentary Hypoglycemia: a medical term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia occurring within 4 hours after a high carbohydrate meal (or oral glucose load) in people who do not have diabetes. It is thought to represent a consequence of excessive insulin release triggered by the carbohydrate meal but continuing past the digestion and disposal of the glucose derived from the meal

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older children. However, it can cause serious problems in children with chronic lung disease and young babies, including pneumonia and severe breathing problems. In rare cases it can lead to death. Premature babies and those with other health problems have the highest risk. A child with RSV may have a fever, stuffy nose, cough and trouble breathing. Tests can tell if your child has the virus.

Retch: dry heaves and/or gagging

Retinopathy of Prematurity: abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye in a premature infant.  There are 5 stages of ROP:  1) There is mildly abnormal blood vessel growth.  2) Blood vessel growth is moderately abnormal.  3) Blood vessel growth is severely abnormal.  4) Blood vessel growth is severely abnormal and there is a partially detached retina  5) There is a total retinal detachment.

Rotovirus: the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children, by the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected with this virus at least once; however, with each infection, immunity develops, and subsequent infections are less severe; adults are rarely affected

Russell-Silver Syndrome: a growth disorder characterized by slow growth before and after birth. Babies with this condition have a low birth weight and often fail to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Head growth is normal, however, so the head may appear unusually large compared to the rest of the body. Affected children are thin and have poor appetites, and some develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) as a result of feeding difficulties.  Many children have a small, triangular face with distinctive facial features including a prominent forehead, a narrow chin, a small jaw, and down-turned corners of the mouth. Other features of this disorder can include an unusual curving of the fifth finger (clinodactyly), asymmetric or uneven growth of some parts of the body, and digestive system abnormalities. Russell-Silver syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of delayed development and learning disabilities.

Scope: any of various instruments for viewing or observing

Sensory Processing Disorder: a term that refers to the way the nervous system receives messages from the senses and turns them into appropriate motor and behavioral responses

Small for Gestational Age (SGA): generally describes any infant whose birth weight and/or length was less than the 3rd percentile (adjusted for prematurity). "IUGR" is a term also commonly used, and describes the small infant who had poor fetal length growth demonstrated while in-utero by ultrasonography. "SGA" is currently used to describe any child born smaller than average in both length and weight. In this brochure, we will be focusing on the SGA child whose length and possibly weight has not caught up to what is appropriate for their age, and for whom doctors can not determine any reason for the child's smallness.

Tonsils: a collection of lymphoid tissue; most commonly refers specifically to the palatine tonsils, which are masses of lymphatic material situated at either side at the back of the human throat. The palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located near the oropharynx and nasopharynx. These immunocompetent tissues are the immune system's first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens.

Toupet Fundoplication: a 270 degree posterior to anterior fundoplication of the stomach

Triamcinolone: a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream

Triglycerides: formed by combining glycerol with three molecules of fatty acid, and are the main constituents of natural fats and oils

Vagus Nerve: also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X, is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves. Upon leaving the medulla between the medullary pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, it extends through the jugular foramen, then passing into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down below the head, to the neck, chest and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera. Besides output to the various organs in the body, the vagus nerve conveys sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system. 80-90% of the nerve fibers in the vagus nerve are afferent (sensory) nerves communicating the state of the viscera to the brain.

Virus: a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism

Visceral Hyperalgesia: an individual has increased sensitivity to pain in internal organs like the stomach, intestines, and/or pancreas. When one eats or drinks, the stomach and intestines stretch to accommodate the meal with no discomfort.  However, in someone with Visceral Hyperalgesia, the simple act of filling the stomach or intestines with small amounts of fluid or food triggers nerves in the gut to respond has if a painful stimulus has been introduced.

Xylitol: a sweetener that occurs naturally, it is a white crystalline substance that looks and tastes like sugar.  It differs from other sweeteners such as sorbitol, fructose and glucose because its molecule has five, instead of six, carbon atoms.

Zinc Oxide: an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation

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